Question: Yesterday a caller to 4BC Radio’s ‘Talking Gardening’ programme asked why the label on their ornamental chilli plant called it Capsicum annuum, and also said that it was “Unfit for Human Consumption”?
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Answer: chillies are derived from the same plant species as capsicum (Americans call Capsicum ‘Bell pepper’ and the English call them ‘Peppers’), the scientific name is Capsicum annuum. Chilli is hot. Capsicum is not. Both are edible.
There are several varieties of chilli which form small, compact bushes which produce a large crop of fruit. Since they grow quickly and look so cute, they are sometimes sold as ‘ornamental chillies’. The cultivar known as ‘Little Elf‘ is quite a popular ‘ornamental’ chilli in Australia. It has distinctive, multicoloured fruit, it’s pretty, it’s edible and it’s quite hot.
But there is also a cousin of chilli and capsicum, which is sold as a decorative pot plant. This plant is Solanum capsicastrum (also known as Solanum pseudocapsicum, the false capsicum) and like chilli and capsicum, they belong in the Tomato family (the Solanaceae). Quite a few members of the Tomato family are toxic to humans, and Solanum capsicastrum, the Winter Cherry, is toxic to humans.
In Europe and in Australia, the Winter Cherry is traditionally sold at Christmas, and sometimes it is sold alongside edible ornamental chillies, like ‘Little Elf‘.
When I ran a garden centre in London, sometimes customers would pull out labels to read them and then they would put them back in the wrong plant, so I had to check stock was correctly labelled.
But in this instance the label is incorrect, and the retailer needs to know.
All chillies (Capsicum annuum), whether sold for ornament, or for food, are edible.
Winter cherry (Solanum capsicastrum) are toxic.
Australian consumer laws exist to protect customers and this error in plant labelling should be brought to the attention of the business who is selling these plants. For further information, visit Consumer complaints and queries.
Pictured, clockwise, from top left:
1 edible and ornamental chilli ‘Little Elf’ (Capsicum annuum); 2 toxic Winter Cherry (Solanum capsicastrum); 3 the wild fruit of the edible capsicum (Capsicum annuum).
28th December 2014